In coronary artery disease, the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked by a gradual buildup of fat (cholesterol) within the artery wall, which reduces the blood flow to the heart muscle. This buildup is called "atherosclerotic plaque" or simply "plaque," and may start slowly progressing in childhood.
If the plaque narrows the channel of the artery, it may make it difficult for adequate quantities of blood to flow to the heart. Basically, there are three main coronary arteries in your heart. These arteries are located in the front of the heart (LAD), in the back of the heart (CIRC), and on the right side of the heart (RCA). One, two, or all three of these coronary arteries or their branches may be involved in the process of narrowing or blockage. The blockage may be partial or complete. When a coronary artery becomes partially or completely blocked, the part of the heart muscle supplied by the blood vessel does not get its required blood supply.
Syptoms - Angina
Heart problems can take you by surprise. Suddenly, you're hunched over with chest pressure, pain, or even a heart attack. These are frightening symptoms of coronary artery disease (sometimes called atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries). This disease means that your heart isn't getting enough blood. The good news is that surgery and basic lifestyle changes can give your heart another chance.
The first symptom generally is chest pain or chest discomfort which may be described as a pressure or heaviness beneath the breastbone (sternum) with associated neck, jaw or arm discomfort. The pattern varies from patient to patient and may have associated symptoms of sweating, shortness of breath, or nausea. This group of symptoms is referred to as angina, and you're probably familiar with angina, one of the most common symptoms of coronary artery disease.
Angina is commonly brought on by physical work, mental work or stress, but may come on at rest or even while sleeping at night. Angina may be improved with the use of NTG (nitroglycerin), which helps the heart cope with these partial blockages. Angina is a feeling that can range from numbness or pressure to severe pain in your chest, arms, jaw, throat, or upper back. You might even confuse angina with heartburn. Sometimes you have no symptoms of coronary artery disease at all-until you're struck by a heart attack. In any case, it's time to do something about your heart problem.
If the blood supply to the blockage is not corrected rapidly, you may develop a "heart attack" (myocardial infarction). The area of the heart muscle not receiving the blood supply will become scar tissue and will lose its ability to pump.
If your cardiologist has found coronary artery blockages during your catheterization, coronary artery bypass surgery may be recommended to protect your heart muscle from these threatening blockages. Ask your heart surgeon to mark the course of the proposed bypass grafts.